What is ERG #1510 and what does green mean?

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ERG 1510 is tetranitromethane and the green is the initial isolation and protective action distances according to the 2008 ERG. 1510 is the ID number and the green means you have to go to the green section of the guide for iso and protective distances
Provided the chemical isn't on fire initially, in which case you'd go to the Orange. Since Tetranitromethane isn't flammable then to the Green pages first you must go!
ERG, Emergency Response Guide. The orange Haz-Mat guide put out by the Department of Transportation, DOT. I assume (should not do that but) the 1510 is a placard number, is that correct? Mr. McCartney has it correctly defined. Your question was a little short on information so assumption are made. You should have one on your engine, it is required by DOT/OSHA. They are free if you do not have one.
Pure TNM is stable and cannot be made to explode, even with the use of 10g of tetryl as a detonator. However, the ability of TNM to detonate is greatly affected by the presence of impurities, even in small quantities. TNM forms extremely powerful explosive mixtures when fuels are added in stoichiometric proportions. Many of these mixtures show sensitivity to impact even higher than that of nitroglycerine.[10]

TNM reacts with moisture at elevated pH to produce nitroform (trinitromethane) which reacts easily with metals to form highly unstable and explosive salts.

Tetranitromethane is highly toxic. Absorption of as little as 2.5 mg/kg can cause methemoglobinemia, lung edema, and damage to liver, kidney, and central nervous system. It is reasonably expected to be a human carcinogen.[11]
- Wikipedia

Falls into that category with Methy Ethyl Bad Stuff!
OXIDIZERS (Unstable)
• May explode from friction, heat or contamination
• DO NOT CLEAN-UP OR DISPOSE OF, EXCEPT UNDER SUPERVISION OF A SPECIALIST

(Wireless Information System for Emergency Responders)

The more I read about it, makes me think if I see it... I'm going the other way.
#1510 is Tetranitromethane. I am surprised no one said that the green section is for asphyxiants or TIH (Toxic Inhalation Hazards). Green also means that the chemical can produce toxic gases when it comes into contact with water. This is the basics of Haz-Mat Operations people.

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