Preface
At the start of 2009 I began a deeper look into the statistics that make up our line of duty deaths. One reason was to see in greater detail what firefighters are dying of and how. A second reason was to begin an honest and respectful look at what is both technically and culturally considered line of duty by the American fire service. To help understand the second half of the 2009 data, readers should review the articles from earlier this year. Readers should also note that the investigative reports do not exist for every 2009 fatality. Knowledge gained from those reports may affect the information interpreted below.
2009 LODD 6-Month Summary” June 2009

In the last half of 2009 forty personnel died in the line of duty according to the United States Fire Administration. Following the earlier line of duty death articles this one looks at the last six months of 2009.
Ages:
20; 24; 28; 32; 33(2); 34(4); 36; 37(2); 39; 41; 44(3); 45(2); 47(4); 50; 51; 52; 54(2); 55; 56; 60(3); 63; 68(2); 70; 72; 75
The youngest was 20, the oldest 75. Average age for the last six months was 48. Of the senior ages, five were above 65 years of age.
Age 68: died of a unknown medical cause
Age 68: died of heart attack
Age 70: died of stress/overexertion
Age 72: died of stress/overexertion
Age 75: died of trauma related to a fall

Fire Attack Deaths:
Nineteen deaths occurred during fireground operations, or ‘on scene’ as classified by the USFA. Only five of those are further classified as having been involved in ‘fire attack.’ Ten of the nineteen deaths are classified as medical causes, either stress/overexertion or heart attack. Of the specific nature and cause of fireground deaths, two firefighters were killed in a structural collapse, two wildland firefighters were killed in a apparatus crash and a third wildland firefighter (pilot) killed in a aircraft crash. The youngest fireground death was 28; the oldest 70.

Looking in greater detail of the Fire Attack deaths, in a ‘traditional’ sense of line of duty minus those of a medical cause or nature, only six victims are identified. Two firefighters were killed in a collapse during a search for a possible occupant. Two wildland firefighters died in an apparatus accident while seeking a route of escape from an enveloping fire. A pilot died in a crash during wildfire operations. The remaining deaths occurred due to medical causes, trauma or other nature not directly related to the fire attack, in the ‘traditional’ sense. One death from stress/overexertion occurred as the victim was operating the pump of an engine during a structure fire.

Rank of Victims;
Chief: 4; Deputy Chief: 1; Assistant Chief: 3
In the second half of 2009, eight chief officers died in the line of duty. This does not include the suicide of a career assistant chief. Their actions during the time of their death are:
Heart attack while responding: 1
Heart attack while on the scene: 4
Stress/Overexertion, on scene: 1
Stress/Overexertion, not on the fire scene: 2
Of the chief officers, all but one was a volunteer. With exception of one, none of the deaths occurred during a structure fire. Each died while operating at lesser alarms (vehicle fire, MVA, EMS incident) or died following a day of fire service activity. Their role within the incident command system is not completely known. The ages of the fallen chief officers are: 34; 44; 52; 54; 63; 68; 70; 72. The average age and action at the time of death prompts additional considerations. The average age for these chief officers is 57. At the time of their deaths, all but two were participating on lesser or minor alarms. Seeing that nationally, volunteer departments rely on staffing available at time of alarm, we may need to look in depth at what is the chief officer response of volunteer departments; do some volunteer departments rely on chief officers as drivers? Is it common for the chief to respond on EMS calls and motor vehicle accidents? What is the command structure lacking in departments that require a chief officer to respond on such minor incidents? Perhaps none of these are truly serious issues but when gathered with equal data from the first half of 2009, a pattern may emerge.

Response:
In the second half of 2009 six fatalities are attributed with incident response. Of those, only one has noted the lack of seatbelt use. If we remove the two wildland fire victims and the aircraft crash, there is only one death from an apparatus accident. The other fatalities are noted to have been caused by a medical nature; the victim’s actions at the time were response related. The ages of the victims related to response are: 34; 37; 45; 47; 55; 60. It is interesting to note that the second half data disproves common thought about young volunteer POV response and vehicle accidents.

Unique:
In the latter half of 2009, seven deaths fall into unique sub categories. One death is attributed to training (trauma, rappelling). Two were noted to have occurred during or following physical training (ages 20 and 34). One is reported due to an earlier medical exposure. Two are attributed to falls (one during a parade; one during a public relations event). One other death was suicide, the result of a self-inflicted gunshot wound by a career chief officer while on duty. Early research indicates that this death may be the first official line of duty death by suicide.

Conclusion
Once we look in greater detail at the statistics provided we can give greater consideration to reviewing efforts underway to reduce these numbers. The next article will make a comparison between the official and culturally traditional line of duty deaths in 2009.

Reference
2009 Fatality Notices” U.S. Fire Administration

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Comment by Fabulous Heather Days of Summer on February 3, 2010 at 1:32am
I wonder how many of these firefighters who died were related to other firefighters?
Comment by Bill Carey on January 31, 2010 at 12:14pm
Art,
It is true that there are many considerations when looking at the deaths of chief officers. Probably most notable would be the staffing of the respective departments. Even though volunteer departments rely on staffing available at time of alarm, there needs to be consideration given to departments' leadership growth and any mentoring of upcoming leaders. If it is common for the chief to run on lesser alarms, regardless of his or her capacity during the alarm, then we need to ask the following; Is it a staffing problem? Is it a problem of not fostering development of additional drivers? Is it a problem of not fostering development of additional chief officers? I'm certain that across the country it is mostly due to staffing, but I'm also aware of departments where the chief, or other officers, are also the majority of drivers. I'm also aware of departments where the chiefs are also the only ones who know the administrative functions of the department as well. Finally, I know of departments where even though none of the above apply it is ego that causes chief officers to run on calls that a company officer can more than adequately handle.

The awareness of chief officer deaths should cause departments to consider whether or not they are raising up members to move into leadership roles, and whether or not their leadership is actively promoting a message of good physical and medical health, which is one of the national initiatives. The average age of those above is 57, and the nature of deaths are cardiac related. It should make you look at your chief and wonder if he or she edifies the healthy profile and if anyone could step in a run the whole department if he or she should drop dead at the next automatic alarm or chicken barbecue.

There will be more related to this in upcoming posts, as well as a look at whether or not the RIC should be watching the command post instead of the fire building, rhetorically speaking of course.

Bill
Comment by Art "ChiefReason" Goodrich on January 31, 2010 at 10:39am
Bill:
Interesting stats on chief officers.
Around here, the small volunteer departments who are struggling with adequate manpower at the initial response will use the chief in whatever capacity needed. They will drive a rig, run the pump, hump hose, go to the roof, go inside and all the while screaming into their portable radio.
ICS is viewed as an option that is used if there is adequate manpower. Same for RIT.
Volunteer chiefs on small departments do not have your typical administrative status like the career chiefs who only go to the "really bad ones". They let their underlings handle it and report back. No; on a small department, it's all hands on deck. I did not do it like that, but got easily frustrated at a scene where the other chief was a moving target.
I guess to understand the deaths of the chief officers better, you would have to really narrow down the type of activity at the time. Plus, recent medical info like a physical should be considered. I struggle with any notion that a chief is mostly static and will suffer a medical emergency if they engage in physical activities at the fireground. I would hope that chiefs aren't being selected because they are the ones in the worst shape. Man; there are many considerations here.
But, I am guessing that these deaths occurred due to pre-existing conditions, undetected medical condition, known medical conditions that were ignored, or sudden death due to an exposure to a "trigger".
I think that it bears further study.
And I agree with you on the young volunteers in their POVs. That is good news for once.
TCSS.
Art

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